Antihistamines are inhibitors of histamine receptors. Cetirizine use not recommended. Patients who have a history of difficulty in swallowing tablets or who have known upper gastrointestinal narrowing or abnormal esophageal peristalsis should not use this product. Interactions with other drugs are more common with first-generation antihistamines compared with second-generation antihistamines.
In case of overdose, loratadine can cause sedation and antimuscarinic effects. Radiolabeled tissue distribution studies in rats indicated that fexofenadine does not cross the blood-brain barrier. Cyproheptadine belongs to the family of drugs called antihistamines.
They are not effective in asthma. Furthermore, essentially the same proportion of patients reported no benefit from either type of treatment. Moreover, no sedative or other central nervous system effects were observed. This adverse effect is linked to their effect on potassium channels leading to slowing of repolarization rate. It is used in treatment of chronic urticaria, atopic dermatitis and dermographisms.
Second generation antihistamines were developed in the s and are much less sedating than first-generation antihistamines. They also act on muscarinic, alpha-adrenergic, and serotonin receptors. They do not have, in normal dose, antimuscarinic effect, except mequitazine which has a mild antimuscarinic effect. They can be classified on the basis of chemical structure, and agents within these groups have similar properties. Desloratadine inhibited histamine release from human mast cells in vitro.
They act on histamine receptors in the brain and spinal cord and in the rest of the body called the periphery. Both enantiomers of fexofenadine hydrochloride displayed approximately equipotent antihistaminic effects.
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